Shutter speed is the amount of time it takes for a camera to capture an image. When you press the shutter button, the sensor opens, and a beam of light enters it, which the matrix forms into an image. This period of time, when the matrix is open, and light comes from the lens, is called shutter speed.
The same system was on film cameras photographers know about https://www.artlook.us/service/wedding-photo-booths-nyc/. It is set in the camera in fully manual mode and in shutter priority mode, in other modes the CZK adjusts shutter speed automatically.
The longer the shutter speed, the more light enters the photo. Accordingly, the larger it is, the lighter the photo, and the smaller, the darker. It is measured and indicated in seconds. It may be a few seconds, or it may be a small fraction of a second, for example, 1/1000 sec. In the photo above, for the correct exposure, I needed a shutter speed of 1/3 sec.
If you make it more, then the photo will turn out to be overexposed, and if it is less, then it will be underexposed. Shutter speed affects the brightness of a photo. Below is an example of a photo with underlight and overexposure.
Professionals measure exposure in feet. Increasing the shutter speed by 2 times increases the exposure by 1 stop. Accordingly, reducing the shutter speed by 2 times reduces the exposure by 1 stop.
If you are shooting handheld, you need to calculate it based on the FR and crop factor. For example, I want to take a photo with 50mm FR. We multiply the FR by the crop factor, in this case 50 x 1.5 = 75. This means that it should not be longer than 1/75 sec, but it is better to take it with a margin – 1/80-1/100 sec, otherwise the photo will turn out blurry.
If you need to make it longer, you need to use a tripod. With a tripod, you can use any shutter speed, but a tripod will only help when photographing stationary objects. People and moving objects still need to be photographed with fast shutter speeds, here flash comes to the rescue.
There are lenses with image stabilization that allow you to shoot at longer distances. But you need to turn on the stabilizer as a last resort, because because of the stabilizer, the photo loses a little in sharpness. If you can do without a stabilizer, it is better to turn it off.
For photos of people in fast motion, for example, at sports events, to avoid blurring, you need to use shutter speeds no longer than 1/500 sec. Here, the shorter the shutter speed, the better.
Long exposures are used for artistic purposes. Below is an example of a photograph of the sea with a shutter speed of 30 seconds at night. At night, in almost complete darkness, due to the long exposure, the photo turns out to be lighter than it actually was.
With a long one, rivers, waterfalls, fountains and various city landscapes can turn out beautifully. If you photograph people with slow shutter speeds, you can make ghosts out of them.